The conditions were anything but perfect at AOS’s outdoor crash day for their big insurance company client. The sun was hiding behind a heavily overcast sky, sub-optimal for high speed camera recordings – but not for the M-VIT! The new sensor with 1280 x 800 and up to 4000 frames/sec offers a perfect image without motion blur even under challenging lighting conditions.
Thermographic Analysis of a Fusion Plant
What will the energy supply of the future look like? The Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Greifswald is dealing with this question.
In accordance with the weightily initial question, the researchers can draw on an impressive research instrument. “Wendelstein 7-X is the world’s largest stellarator-type nuclear fusion facility,” says Dr. Marcin W. Jakubowski from Stellarator Edge and Divertor Physics Department at IPP. “It is intended to show whether this construction type is suitable as a permanently operated power plant.” The aim is to achieve plasma discharges lasting up to 30 minutes with this plant, in other words, half an hour of continuous operation. This would be an important preliminary work on the way to a form of energy production that does not require fossil fuels such as oil, coal and gas, does not produce CO2 emissions and does not further promote global warming. During the second experimental campaign, which ended in October 2018, discharges lasting up to 100 seconds were achieved. This is considered a world record for a fusion facility of this type.
Use of the High-end ImageIR® 9300 Camera Secures Operation of the Fusion System
The scientists measure temperatures of up to 1,000 °C on the surface of the graphite tiles. In exceptional cases and locally very limited, up to 2,000 °C are registered. “Temperatures of more than 1,200 degrees Celsius are critical,” explains Dr. Marcin W. Jakubowski. “If this happens, the divertor can be damaged and tile elements can come loose.” If this were to happen, the system would have to be stopped and the divertor repaired. The consequence would be a forced break of at least six months.Download Case Study
Introducing the world’s fastest 2D polarisation camera, at over 1 million frames per second!
Key Uses include:
- Analysis and visualisation of internal stress distribution during metal processing
- Evaluation of stress propagation around cracks due to impact fracture
- Dynamic observation of crystal axis/orientation state on liquid crystal/crystal material
- Visualisation of fluid stress distribution generated by viscoelastic body or soft matter
Polarisation can measure and visualise various physical quantities and properties
Real time measurement of strain and deformation can be a valuable asset and is available through Vic-Gauge real time processing. The below is a real case study of how Vic-Gauge was used, as part of a solution generated by Correlated Solutions to measure real time strain.
Key Objectives of DIC Project
- –Measure real-time strains and deformations of flexible sheets
- –Real-time analog output for strain and displacement measurement to control test
- For single camera, several key requirements
- Minimise the out-of-plane movement
- Maintain nominal planarity of specimen surface
- Keep sensor plane nominally parallel to specimen surface
Advantages of DIC Measurement System
- Full-field deformations throughout experiment
- Both quasi-static and dynamic loading measurable
Careful positioning and orientation of the DIC camera is crucial for most accurate measurements
- Correct orientation is readily achieved with carpenter’s square or laser pointer and a small mirror attached to specimen holder.
Minimize the error from any out-of-plane specimen movement by increasing distance from camera to the specimen
- Increased lighting intensity necessary for this situation
- Test can be controlled using output analog signal from Vic-Gauge
- Large or small deformations are measurable
Traditional 3D motion analysis requires a complicated setup procedure, where at least two or more high speed cameras have to be precisely positioned and calibrated using an intricate procedure involving a dedicated jig. Once this has been completed, dedicated software has to track and measure any points of interest as they move through space in all three axis (X, Y and Z). Further calibration and equipment might be required if you need to also extrapolate the objects attitude with regard to its roll, pitch or yaw.
Photron’s 6D-Marker greatly simplifies this process. It utilizes a high precision lenticular marker that enables any single camera, of any resolution or framing rate, to quickly and cleanly measure the object of interest’s six coordinate sets in free space. These six coordinate sets are referred to as 6D, or 6DoF (short form for six degrees of freedom).
Furthermore, if the original camera and lens combination are available, it is a straightforward matter to recreate a model to analyze previously recorded videos, regardless of their resolution or recording speed. All that is required, asides from the 6D-Markers being affixed to the test subject of course, is that a calibration file is produced with a simple procedure requiring nothing more than a 2D checkerboard calibration board be moved around within the desired field of view.
There are a number of high speed video appliccations which could use the 6D software including:
- Vehicle impact safety testing
- Robotic pick and place
After our recent partnership announcement with IO Industries we highlight the top 5 uses for their High Resolution camera range. As is the case with all applications, get in contact with us if you have a specific need and we will work to find a turn-key solution to match.
1. Weapons Range Testing and Tracking
A range of the IO Industries high resolution cameras has already been proven in this field. The global shutter CMOS sensors are a huge advantage when looking at test range tracking, this sensor ensures that blur doesn’t occur for fast moving objects giving a cleaner and clearer image. The ability to pair the high resolution cameras with quality DVR’s such as the IO Industries Core range, means that the testing can also provide a large amount of full-quality uncompressed footage. This footage can also be timestamped with appropriate range timings. The packages of high resolution cameras and digital video recorders are currently in use throughout the globe on a number of land, sea and air test ranges.
2. Production Line Troubleshooting
Where a combination of high resolution and high speed is required to troubleshoot production line issues, the IO Industries high resolution cameras are a perfect fit. The compact cameras are capable of being placed in close to factory machinery. When paired with the Core DVR’s, the cameras are capable of long record times which may be required to find faults. The range of CoaXPress outputs mean that there is quality footage of high resolution constantly being fed back to the recorders which can be stored at a distance to prevent data loss in the instance of a fault. Fault detection can then be replayed on the factory floor to find and rectify the error. The high resolution is an extra benefit where the fault may be unknown, allowing for a wider field of view to be captured and examined.
3. Electronic Inspection
The higher resolution cameras (Victorem 5.1M, 8.9M & 12.0M & Flare 12M / 48M) in the IO Industries range provide a perfect solution for an electronic inspections camera. These can be used for:
- SPI: Solder Paste Inspection (PCB inspection before component placement)
- AOI: Automated Optical Inspection (PCB inspection after components are placed)
- LCD Inspection (check for proper pixel behavior)
The CoaXPress output provides a reliable, fast, point-to-point connection to frame grabber.
4. Sports Biomechanics
Traditional memory based cameras require the user to download footage between gathering data. This prevents accurate biomechanic data, as it does not capture the repeated actions which can affect movement. The IO Industries High resolution camera (or multiple) paired with a Core DVR allow data to be captured over and over without the need to stop and download the footage. Output files from the cameras can then be analysed by the appropriate 3rd party software.
5. Medical Research
The high resolution cameras mean that more data is captured within the frame. This allows for a greater amount of analysis to be done and in turn, a better result in medical research. The IO Industries High Resolution camera range has already been used across the globe as a tool in in various medical imaging research tasks. On top of this, we see the potential in the detection and tracking of skin cancers. The high resolution of the cameras is also useful in optical research.
The AOS high speed camera range has for years been used as part of crash testing around the world. Their newest range of camera offers incredible resolution at high speed meaning that they are able to capture even more detail at a higher frame rate.
The below sequence of videos showcases the range of cameras used in a crash test of a truck, filmed at 80km/h.
Truck hitting congested cars 80km/h filmed with AOS L-Pri @ 2500/fps. Footage provided by AOS Technologies
Truck hitting congested cars 80km/h filmed with AOS M-Pri @ 1200/fps. Footage provided by AOS Technologies
Wide angle of truck hitting congested cars 80km/h filmed with AOS L-Vit @ 1000/fps in full HD. Footage provided by AOS Technologies
Mechanically stressed car components like tires are a continuous issue for quality inspection and related R&D improvements. At Bridgestone Corporation in Hofu (Yamaguchi prefecture in South- Western Japan) new test procedures for off-the-road tires for construction and mining vehicles (OR tires) had to be developed to meet the literally growing scale of performance concerning the carrying capacity.
Huge dump trucks like a Komatsu 960E-1K can carry more than 300 tons of mine rock. When this monster moves on stony soil for many hours a day the workload on those tires is enormous. The long-term tests realised by Bridgestone run in different factories and include parallel inside and outside thermal inspections. The inside inspections are accomplished after several holes have been drilled into the tires carcass, while the outside measurements concentrate on external peripheral structures.
To allow a precise measurement during different rotation speed settings a very exact triggering interface for the infrared camera is required – no problem for an ImageIR® 8325. Utilising its nanosecond precision trigger interface the high precision camera collect data with a temperature resolution of 20 mK, very short integration times in the microsecond range and extreme high frame rates.
Article Produced by Infratec in conjunction with Bridgstone Corporation
IR Camera Range
Active thermography is the induction of a heat flow by energetically exciting a test object. The heat and the flow of energy is then influenced by defects or material layers which makes it a great application for materiel testing. These inhomogeneities can be sen on the surface by high-precision infrared cameras such as our ImageIR and Variocam range.
Our range of cooled IR cameras are perfect for any active thermography application within the engineering, health or automotive industries. The cooled cameras allow for a more accurate temperature measurement at a higher resolution. The range of thermal cameras has geometric resolutions of up to (1,280 x 1,024) IR pixels and thermal resolutions far below 0.015 K. As well as this, there is optional high temperature calibrations allowing the measurement of materials such as metal and others with high heat conductivity
The thermography software IRBIS® 3 active analyses the thermo-graphic sequences, which have been generated during the test, and edits them to create a false colour image, in which defects can be marked for further evaluation or documentation. For this purpose, several different analysis procedures are available. The choice of the correct algorithm depends on the material characteristics, geometry and type of defects to be detected.
While the quotient method investigates the heat flow of the test object by reference to the increase and decrease of the surface temperature, the pulse-phase thermography (PPT) relies on the analysis of the temperature profile of different frequencies. For each frequency, two event images are generated, one amplitude- and one phase image. The lock-in thermography (LIT) analyses the sequence of periodic excitation of the test object.
Application of Active Thermography]
Active thermography has a number of applications, however is mainly used in manufacturing and material testing. Some specific applications include:
- Detection of layer structures, delaminations and inserts in plastics
- Detection in CFRPs of the automotive and aerospace industry
- Investigation of interior structures or impacts on honeycomb lightweight constructions
- Recognition of deeper material deficiencies, such as blowholes in plastic parts or ruptured laser welding seams
Blink Technology now has access to some of the top of the line thermal detection cameras and software. With our partners at Infratec, we will be able to put together an out of the box or turnkey solution to suit your needs. Thermal imaging cameras can be used across a wide range of industries including:
Applications of thermal cameras are also widely varied with applications including aerial thermography, high speed thermography, micro thermography and many more. Blink’s expertise in high end imaging helps us to put together a package to suit your needs.
Our systems and analysis software are designed with the user in mind and are simple to set-up, calibrate and operate. Some of the features of our systems include.View Product